Overlapping hazards are not a new phenomenon now. Recent instances of cyclone Tauktae in the western coast and cyclone Yaas in the eastern coast followed by the flooding it induced in the midst of a pandemic shows the grave situation India is facing.

So we need to take cognizance of the fact that such overlapping hazards could be a recurrent phenomenon. So we need to be prepared for a sequence of intervention spread around the year and not a knee jerk ex-post set of action.

The vulnerability of the population to such natural adversaries are wide ranging the proximate causes of vulnerabilities could be direct current exposures to hazards as people continue to live in unsafe condition whether on the river and flood plains, the sinking deltas or the eroding sand bars.

Beside these, vulnerabilities also emerge from underlying socio-economic political conditions. The marginalized population residing in such areas oftenlacks access to various resources-land (due to salinity, erosion), safe housing, water and sanitation, stable livelihoods and markets

Such disaster cannot be managed by short and reactive actions risk can be only managed and minimize through a plethora of year round activities that combines certain different strategies that reduces the probability of the occurrence of hazards in the first instant like – early warning arrangement of adequate spaces for  evacuation, prompt rescue and evacuation, risk mitigation and adaptation strategies.

There are instances of build-forget rebuild syndrome on flood defence infrastructure, the dismal state of embankments there toppling and the resulting in flooding needs to be checked.

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